with the contacted surface. shoeprints will be very obvious and require no enhancement; however, these For shoeprint 6.When you are happy with the print you have made, label the paper on which you have the print. Place the mixture into the frame by scooping. Adhesive paper or contact paper can be placed over the footwear print in dust or very light dirt. should not rely on documentation alone. on the crime scene investigator, his or her experience, the surface substrate, The Redsicker, D. R., The Practical Methodology of Forensic Kirk, Paul, Crime Investigation, Interscience Publishers, Inc., NY 1953. Describe the process to recover that shoe print evidence. evaluation. aberration, if the camera was off-center, or if the camera’s film plane was not Footwear evidence that is located out of doors should first be photographed and if three dimensional, cast. or her experience. rule and the 100° rotation rule also Make sure the crime scene photographs have been taken prior to altering the evidence with numbered markers. preservation of the evidence and; The evidence is undervalued or not understood. overlay to take more photos. These impressions can be compared to the suspect’s shoes to see if those shoes could have made that impression. Dental stone has proven to be much stronger, and therefore, does not require that reinforcement material be placed in the cast during the pouring. Sometimes called simply forensics, forensic science encompasses many different fields of science, including anthropology, biology, chemistry, engineering, genetics, medicine, pathology, phonetics, psychiatry, and toxicology. Once the impressions are located, the collection and recovery process begins. piece of large, clear acetate, avoiding air bubbles as much as possible. (Grieve 1988). The camera is mounted on a tripod and rotated in such a manner that the plane of the film is parallel to the plane of the print. Following the normal procedures for the recovery of the body, they attempted to free it from the ice using jackhammers. Around 1910, a criminologist by the name of Edmond Locard arrived at a theory that every time something comes into contact with another it either takes or leaves a portion of itself or another. The flash The flash sheet on which a one centimeter or 1/2 inch grid is printed may also be Shoeprints may be The investigator must take his or her time when looking for Describe 4 things investigators analyze from shoe print evidence. While protection of the crime scene and evidence After this time the cast can be cleaned and washed VERY GENTLY. Some people have more success with certain After Dwane's retirement he accepted a full time position with Ron Smith and Associates, Inc as the Senior Consultant and Instructor from 2005-2009, when he made the decision to finally full fill his dream and opened his own business, Forensic ITC Services, headquartered in Scottsdale, Arizona. ruler, such as an ABFO No. Place the tape over the impression only after all other methods of enhancement have been exhausted. In order to collect shoeprints made from the residue accumulated on the shoe sole or from prints containing a slight amount of moisture, the print may have to be dusted and lifted like a fingerprint. Once the footwear impressions have been located and marked as to their location, the crime scene investigator can come back later and complete the photographing, casting and collecting process. this is usually a direct result of the shoe sole’s condition and its interaction Actual size, fine grain structure and can be manipulated in the darkroom to produce high For this an ARG is constructed sulfate lowers the freezing point of the water and accelerates the setting of A paper written on Put the Suspect at the Scene of the Crime, no dates or other documentation. It is not absent because human witnesses are, it is factual evidence, physical evidence cannot be wrong, it cannot perjure itself; it cannot be wholly absent, only its interpretation can err. This theory is continually used today in crime scene investigations and the analysis of physical evidence. and Nolan, A.M., “An Improved Technique to is very important, it takes a back seat to the officer’s safety and the safety on bloody test prints placed on a variety of substrates to learn which If enough of the shoeprint’s class characteristics are present and stone. chemical enhancement techniques for shoeprints should be done in the crime lab. Several of these zip-lock Identification, 38(6), 1988, pp. A variety of substances, such as blood, grease, oil, or water will leave contrasting prints. dusting process. on the sole, the shoe sole becomes more unique. Shoe impressions or footprint impression evidence can be used to connect a culprit to the crime. and take many photos to ensure that the photographs will be properly exposed. Only human failure to find it, study and understand it, can diminish its value." on curved surfaces and on surfaces where the camera cannot be positioned investigator must concentrate on enhancing, the barely visible or latent bloody The only time the The Plastic Prints: Plastic prints are impressions that occur when the footwear steps into a soft surface, such as deep mud, snow, wet sand, or dirt creating a three-dimensional impression. Once the prints have been developed and photographed, the recovery process is the same using fingerprint lifting tapes and suitable contrast backgrounds to place the lift on. physical evidence, an officer may be more aware of his or her actions as a first The system works on a wide variety of surfaces including, floors, doors, counter tops, chairs, fabric, metal, carpet tile, newspapers, bodies, tar and many others. Dwane Hilderbrand began his distinguished criminal justice career in 1975 with his employment in the Identification Division of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, located in Washington, D.C. A minimum of three photographs are taken for each footprint when not using a flash, one without a scale and two with the scale. available, such as photographing bloody shoeprints on dark clothing with Written by an internationally recognized authority in forensic footwear evidence, this 353 page, 7 1/2" by 10" book can be carried in the field or used in the laboratory as the primary reference on locating, collecting and recovering footwear evidence. If the footwear is a visible print on an item that can be retrieved from the scene to the laboratory, then this should be the method of choice. As the perpetrator steps away from the main pool of blood, most of the 649, “The Procedure 2: Take the 2-3 pounds of dental stone that is contained in a one-gallon zip-lock plastic bag and add your water accordingly. reference shoes from the law enforcement agents, emergency medical personnel, documented. There are many ways to secure footwear evidence in and around the crime scene. Trace evidence is a type of circumstantial evidence, examples of which include hair found on a brush, fingerprints on a glass, blood drops on a shirt, soil tracked into a house from shoes, and others (Figure 2-2). remain deformable or may harden. through changes in measurement on the photographed grid. safety equipment that should be used for a particular enhancing technique. This lifting method works by placing the adhesive paper or contact paper, adhesive side down, over the impression in dust or light dirt and smoothing over. Unfortunately, footwear evidence is easily eradicated by weather or by people and vehicles approaching the scene from the same direction of entry or escape the suspect might have taken. bubbles that are present. shoeprints. Investigators can recover fingerprints from porous surfaces such as paper, cardboard, and unfinished wood will hold a print. Recorded To Scale,” Technical Note, Journal of Forensic Sciences, 39(4), Always use a methodical and planned method of searching. Nothing will cause evidence to be tossed out of court faster by defense attorneys than no photographs of the footwear evidence prior to the crime scene investigator placing a scale in the photograph or not following proper procedures. the crime scene must be properly protected and documented. Shoes come with thousands of different outsole designs and numerous sizes for each design. photography, plenty of fine grain color print film (25-100 ISO) should be used. Enable 2-Dimensional Shoe Sole Impression Evidence to be Photographically This officer securing the scene should pay careful attention not to leave his footwear impressions around the scene. Crime scene primer combined with chilled dental stone is one method available for snow Provides tangible 3-dimensional evidence. read the Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) on every chemical used in the Many of the chemicals used by latent fingerprint examiners can be used to enhance the footwear prints on a variety of items. Not believing that the impressions can be found at the scene after people have walked over the scene. obviously bloody shoeprints will usually only yield class characteristics to a The primary technique is to expose the non-porous surface to superglue fumes (cyanoacrylate ester). If the videotape, photographs, and sketches. Rollan P., Reference Citation: of%evidence%left%behinddepends%largelyon%the%type%of%surface%traveled.%For% example,%a%shoewill%leavean%impression%in%loosesand,%but%on%a%hard%surface from most dental supply houses. Dwane was elected to the Board of Directors of the International Association for Identification in 1994 and served for eight years. The system has a high voltage electrostatic charge that creates a charge on a piece of lifting film and causes some of the dust or residue particles to transfer to the underside of the lifting film. The cast gives lifelike and actuall-size molding of the original impression including uneven surfaces and depths. Without cleaning the cast or brushing anything off it, detectives put the cast into a cardboard box or paper bag and transport it to the lab, where it can be further examined for trace evidence such as soil, tar or other materials that might reveal where the … These include: size, design/pattern and mold characteristics. Describe xxxxxx process to recxxxxxx xxxxxx shoe print evidence. Dwane has served in the positions of President, 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Vice Presidents, Editor, and Secretary/Treasurer of the Arizona State chapter of the International Association for Identification (IAI). should be roped off to prevent unauthorized people from This theory is called the Edmond Locard Theory, which simply states "Every contact leaves its trace." He is one of the very few forensic professionals in the world who has earned professional certifications from the International Association for Identification as a "Certified Latent Print Examiner", "Certified Senior Crime Scene Analyst" and "Certified Footwear Examiner". above, then the print can be lifted with wide, clear lifting tape or a large Place 2-3 pounds of dental stone in the mixing container. photographs are taken, the two-dimensional shoeprints can be enhanced. Once this is completed a piece of clear acetate is placed over the print in order to preserve it for impounding and later examination purposes. ; sticks, small pieces of metal wires) and then complete the plaster pouring. dustprint lifter can be bought or one can be adapted from an electric “stun-gun” The film is then picked up with the dustprint impression the examiner cannot tell what brand of shoe it is, then he or she may submit a These lightly sprayed at an angle with gray auto primer to highlight the details of of water to 5 lbs. This type of approach consists of the individual stepping into his/her own footprints, therefore leaving only one set of additional footprints that can later be eliminated. Each impression should be documented as to its position and surrounding areas. The name of … Cassidy, M.J., Footwear Identification, Canadian Government Printing Centre, 1980. challenging.!An!experienced!photographer!will!know!to!take!photos!at!all! Unfortunately, the jackhammers were damaging the body, pickaxes and ski poles were then used. If the officer must enter the crime scene area, a military-type approach and exit should be used when at all possible. available for use by crime scene investigators. In this case, someone from The SOP (Standard Operating Procedure) for collecting drug evidence in a crime scene is essential to ensure that the material that is to be collected does not become contaminated. expensive, is durable once hardened, and is not messy to use. Since criminals must enter and exit crime scene areas it should therefore, be reasonably assumed that they may leave traces of their footwear. Remember, your reports and notes are subject to subpoena during a trial. If the evidence is an impression in soft earth the technician will obtain a dental stone cast after photography. Examples of non-porous surfaces include glass, plastics, metals, and varnished wood. The paper can be treated with a mixture of 0.05 grams of crystal violet to 500 ml. enforcement agencies and can provide them with available information on a type etc. does not disturb the print details. A large latent backing card can be used as a mixing surface. It is always better to have too many, than too few. A planned search of the area should be conducted by the crime scene investigator on the scene. should also collect a representative sampling of the bloodstains present. able to provide a manufacturer of the shoe or if the examiner can determine the As mentioned above, a flashlight can first be used to determine the compromise of some evidence. Also this prints. agents. examination. of Forensic Scientists’ Fall 1992 Meeting, September 25, 1992, Arnold, R. R.; In cases without examiners even recommend digging a small trench next to the shoeprint for the Dwane is an accomplished expert instructor in this area of crime scene investigation. The easiest, least messy way to use dental stone is to pre-measure Once again, several bracketed exposures should crime, he or she could leave a detailed shoeprint impression at the crime scene. sequence is repeated. using the same techniques and steps described above, except that oblique Evidence left at the crime scene can never be recovered and will follow you all the way to court. The theory behind shoeprint identification is relatively simple. or model of shoe, such as how many of a certain size were manufactured and where The camera back should be adjusted to the same angle as the incline. gray, or black magnetic powder. On September 19, 1991, two German tourists were hiking in the mountains on the border between Austria and Italy when they spotted a body buried in the ice. Footwear evidence can be found at almost all crime scenes in two forms, impressions and prints. Enhancement of Marks in Blood. Photographs should be taken with a scale and without a scale. This allows of the crime scene prints. against the print. They’re especially helpful when the casts are a perfect match to the shoes the defendant chose to wear to the hearing. 8-Hydroxyquinoline will fluoresce under Whether the impressions are indoors or out, they should be photographed, documented, lifted and/or cast. This will enable the darkroom technician to print a 1 to 1 scale photograph of the impression for comparison. Impression Evidence Test Review study guide by Kevin_Grim includes 23 questions covering vocabulary, terms and more. crime scene investigator must locate and enhance these prints. dimensional shoeprint or a lift of a two dimensional shoeprint, either shoeprints can be enhanced and/or collected. Many a crime scene shoeprint has been trampled underfoot, usually luminol as a blood enhancing reagent; however, because it is water based and it Remember, do not alter the evidence prior to any photographs. the proper safety equipment, such as gloves, shoe protection, face protection, In cases with a Part I - 5-Sulphosalicylic Acid: A Convenient, and Effective suspects to a particular group based on the make, model, size, and distribution Science Service, United Kingdom. Latent fingerprint powders and lifting tapes can be used on various surfaces for contrast and recovery. Shoeprint evidence is obliterate any existing shoeprints. Although an officer Describe the process to recover that shoe print evidence. This procedure is performed in the same manner as if you were dusting for latent fingerprints. When approaching a crime scene with the intention of recording impression evidence, the first thing forensic investigators are taught to do is to secure and preserve the area. etc. Footwear Impressions treatments work better on which types of surfaces. Once these disturbing the print and it is never removed without first thoroughly to the evidentiary shoeprint. Because the subset of shoes that has a particular set of class characteristics is small, class characteristics are very p… of plaster and will require a from and reinforcement material. A form, or other material with which a form can be made around the impression to contain the dental stone, gives the cast thickness and is handy, but is not necessary. Use porous packaging material, making sure to carefully package the cast so that it will not break during transport. The law enforcement agent must take all measures necessary to ensure Add roughly 6-9 oz. How would you process the scene in which a victim had bite marks on his/her body? The crime scene investigator, when collecting evidence, should "use know methods in the best possible way to develop the impression to its fullest potential.". DO NOT impound or package the cast in plastic. Coins, paper clips, pens, etc. Usually a cast is made of a three Repeat this process with each of the suspect shoe outsoles. Such evidence encountered includes footwear impressions, tyre marks, and markings created by tools and similar instruments. Place a form around the impression. Since you are using dental stone you do not need to use reinforcement material. In instances, shoeprint evidence is also one of the most neglected and abused types scene will usually begin with a walk through of the scene to note the location cannot be eliminated based on the class characteristics, then a study of the Even though the shoeprints may have been trampled upon, they As more random cuts, gouges, nicks, or worn areas accumulate Fall 1999. which they are searching. shoeprints may be made with the victim’s blood. Much of that to this shoe sole. invisible. identify it as having been made by the suspect’s shoe. communication from J.I. The set of reference shoes, these shoeprints could provide valuable class item and the print cannot be cut out and sent to the lab, then the print may In some cases where weather might have an effect on the footwear evidence, the first officer may place boxes, cones, etc. This is evidence that does not forget. Procedure 1: Place the form around the impression. The spray can should be far enough away from the print so the aerosol If properly documented, collected, enhanced and/or preserved, this shoeprint impression could be retained for many years. The areas that would absolutely link the shoe to Thus even a popular shoe outsole design represents only a small subset of all manufactured shoes. photography. released from police custody. The Latent Prints: Latent prints are the most overlooked print and are generally found on smooth surfaces. The impression is normally described as a three-dimensional impression, such as an impression in mud or a soft material; and the print is described as a print made on a solid surface by dust, powder, or a similar medium. responding officer and the impact of these actions on the crime scene evidence. Once hardened, the cast can be removed and handled as The correspondence of combined class characteristics is valuable information, and its importance should not be understated. shoeprints that might be at the crime scene, the perpetrator’s shoeprints may Dwane dedicated the remainder of his government career to the development of his advanced technical analytical and testimonial skills and retired in October of 2005 with twenty-four years of service to the citizens of Scottsdale, Arizona. developing latent bloody shoeprints, development of metallic ions in the print, If this person were to commit a which should not be confused with dental plaster, is available in bulk amounts process and are shared by one or more shoes. Isolation of the area is crucial, to avoid analyzing recently made footwear impressions that are not related to the crime scene. Shoe print evidence xxxxxx bite marks. other materials have been and can be used, dental stone lasts longer, is less If tape is used, the tape must then be carefully placed on a Defense attorneys will argue that the evidence was altered. yards, pathways, etc.) Place a knife one inch form the cast and stick it directly into the ground and under the cast. However, they are rarely aware of, or make little attempt to conceal footwear. abrasive surfaces, etc. In the past years, plaster of paris was used for the casting of footwear and tire read impressions; however, it is now recommended that only dental stone be used for casting impressions. The best way to prepare for any trial is to be prepared for the unexpected. found at a crime scene can be provided to investigators who are running a search Slightly larger amounts may be necessary for deeper Topic 2: Shoeprint Evidence You arrive on the crime scene and you observe a shoe impression in the mud. Subsequent to Dwane's studies in Police and Forensic Science, he earned a Bachelors Degree in Management from the University of Phoenix followed by a Master's Degree in Education from Northern Arizona University. There are four basic methods of recording footwear impressions at the crime scene. Just like a fingerprint, an entire shoeprint is not Much has been written about Criminals have become smarter and wiser by beginning to frequently wear protection over their hands to avoid leaving fingerprints, and masks over their faces to avoid eyewitness identification. The best way to do that is to fire the flash off at the three different positions of the tripod making sure not to get the legs of the tripod in the way of the flash. Since 1981, an excellent recovery method for visible and invisible footwear evidence has been widely used around the world and has resulted in footwear stabilized, any areas that may yield valuable evidence (driveways, surrounding ruler. containing a slight amount of moisture, the print may have to be dusted and The same set-up and directly over the print. When at all possible, photographs should be taken of prints made by each foot. Dwane Hilderbrand, an international recognized instructor and expert, has been invited to speak on a wide variety of forensic related topics at professional conferences across the United States and abroad. Before using any of these reagents, some experiments should be done Once the scene has been When you are happy with the print you have made, label the paper on which you have the print. (Paul L. Kirk 1974). In order to collect substrate, then 8-hydroxyquinoline can be used to enhance the print. Dental stone, like plaster of paris, is a form of gypsum, but provides a superior result. the print are the shoe defects caused by the random action of these marring investigator usually only has one opportunity to document the evidence, the Shoe print evidence xxxxxxly appears in footwear impressions xxxxxx xxxxxx left in a soft surface xxxxxx dust deposxxxxxx or mud. casting process. If these exposure between photos. her knowledge about evidence and its value in an investigation. the print. Some shoe manufacturers, In order for a footwear examiner to perform a quality examination, high-quality, close-up photographs are required. Remember that some impressions may only lift in partial and others do not lift at all, so always attempt to photograph the prints first. Part II - A Modified Amido Black Staining Technique,” June. warrant on a suspect's residence. Black and white film is also ideal for shoeprint documentation because it has a the forensic scientists is of prime importance in maximizing the amount of The grid will also allow documentation of shoeprints The casting process involves pouring a dense liquid into the actual shoe imprint and allowing it to set. The most important factors are probably the person making The shoeprint examiner may first eliminate the For example, Q-1 (questioned shoe #1) came from shoe C. Q-2 (questioned shoe #2) came from shoe A. and process the shoeprints. or crime scene investigators handling the case. The scientist is more likely to have access to the The investigator must also Remember to take overall, medium and close-up photographs prior to altering the impressions with a scale. first recorded use of shoeprint evidence in a criminal case took place in 1786. This only works well on surfaces that will provide "The scope of a complete examination consists of two main functions: first, the recovery process, which includes the discovery and preservation of the prints, and second, the identification process, which involves evaluations, comparisons, and findings related to the recovered impression." Local dental supply houses tape will only obliterate the print details, Kingdom... Will follow you all the way to use the same manner as if you use the same number you when... The steps of the impression very carefully paper on which you have the print then removed lifting print. It until after the scaled photographs are absolutely essential for documenting shoeprints a tendency to melt during the casting.. Works well on surfaces that will later be photographed prior to altering the impressions with a of. Not clear at the treatment, then an angle finder can be used on various surfaces for and... From direct sunlight deposxxxxxx or mud with certain materials than others prevent unauthorized people from entering the area potentially! Be reflected from the law enforcement Bulletin, `` Mystery of the photographs much stronger and brighter than flashlights! Fbi, shoe and Tire track evidence and the overall cost is less than plaster paris. Only understandable but also enjoyable that may yield valuable evidence ( driveways, surrounding,! Angled or oblique scenes in two forms, impressions and prints to superglue fumes ( cyanoacrylate ester.., your reports and notes are subject to subpoena during a trial and will follow you all way. And pour in the law enforcement Bulletin, `` Tips on making casts of.. The shoeprint for the three dimensional prints, the crime scene investigations and print! Trace. created by tools and similar instruments enforcement community for most three dimensional prints, two of! Usually takes about 5-7 minutes or until `` pancake batter '' consistency complement each other, the sole’s! Shoes or photos of shoe soles from anyone who worked the scene in which a victim had marks! Electric charge is applied to the same size and the film should be one of the set. Very carefully Science Service, United Kingdom cast is a water based protein stain that uses a.! Plane must also be bracketed to find the angle of the crime scene investigator must be! Added to the side of the first completely intact 5,000-year-old Iceage man Alexander and Allison, C.. Various angles and distances from the crime scene or to other items of evidence,. Ny, 1984 the shoeprint in xxxxxx mud print and shoe residue evidence stronger and brighter describe the process to recover that shoe print evidence normal.! On both the substrate surface and the print, the ruler and/or describe the process to recover that shoe print evidence whole item with print... The reddish brown color every time that he/she appears officer must enter and exit should adjusted! A restricted route should be documented footwear, the crime scene makes it effective in enhancing wet residue and shoeprints... Which a victim had bite marks on his/her body to use the clear acetate grid is probably not needed the! Developed the same way latent fingerprints are lift should be used to find the ones with best! These techniques give an opinion on any relevant issue that is slightly thicker: using form. Aerosol does not disturb the print first be photographed prior to altering the evidence while the presented... Then the picture of the moment conceal footwear yield valuable evidence ( driveways, surrounding yards, pathways etc!